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 Overview of the Power Generation Industry
Fundamentals of Engineering Mathematics
  Life Cycle Management
 Electric and Magnetic Systems
 Material Science
 Microsoft Excel VB Programming
 Statistical Science in Electrical Energy
 Thermo Physics
 Power Plant Chemistry
 Computer Aided Analysis
 Electrical Systems
 Auto Controls
 Common Plant
 Condensers and Feedheat
 The South African Grid Code (SAGC)
 Power Plant Monitoring
 MV and HV Power Transmission
 Project Management




Overview of the Power Generation Industry (3 days)

The purpose of this course is to give learners an understanding of the power generation industry. The economics and efficiencies of the different generation technologies, including both traditional (such as coal-fired and nuclear) and renewables (such as wind and solar) will be taught. They will also be introduced to the planning and economics of the transmission and distribution segments of the electrical utility industry including the different national plans. This training aims to equip learners with a more holistic view of the power generation industry and how it has evolved.

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Fundamentals of Engineering Mathematics (3 days)

The purpose of the course is to highlight and reinforce some of the common areas in engineering mathematics typically covered in an undergraduate engineering curriculum. Highlighted areas include: linear algebra, functions, calculus, differentiation, integration and ordinary differential equations.

The course is structured around the electronic textbook: “Essential Engineering Mathematics” by M Batty. All students must have access to the textbook. The course serves as a refresher and is intended to provide a common mathematics basis for other courses in the EPPEI programme.

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Life Cycle Management (2 days)

This course introduces the basic principles of the physical asset management process in a life cycle context. This includes an introduction of maintenance management fundamentals, management of equipment reliability, and optimising maintenance decisions. It focuses on condition based maintenance as a part of the maintenance decision process. The course is broadly structured around the textbook:“Asset Management Excellence” second edition, by Cambell J.D., Jardine A.K.S. and McGlynn J. The Eskom library is expected to have a number of copies of this book available for students to consult during their preparations.

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Electric and Magnetic Systems (3 days)

This course gives a basic technical understanding of the operation of typical power system apparatus including transformers, rotating machines, and transmission lines. The course aims to provide learners with the fundamental knowledge of the apparatus and equivalent circuit representations, an essential tool in an engineer’s toolbox. The course also aims to provide learners with the practical aspects and uses of the apparatus.

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Material Science (3 days)

The course provides an overview of the factors which govern the mechanical behaviour of engineering materials, with particular emphasis on alloys for components in power plants. These factors include material composition, microstructure and service environmental parameters. The lectures include:

  • Overview of the classification of engineering materials and ferrous alloys.
  • Tensile testing and the stress-strain curve, elastic and plastic behaviour.
  • Microstructure and mechanical behaviour.
  • Phase transformations of steel and heat treatments.
  • Materials under stress: fracture, fatigue and creep.

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Microsoft Excel VB Programming (1 day)

The purpose of the course is to introduce learners to the use of functions in Microsoft Excel and the creation of user-defined functions and sub-routines in the VBA environment. This training aims to allow engineers to use Microsoft Excel to build numerical models of plant and equipment.

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Statistical Science in Electrical Energy (2 days)

The intention of this course is to provide an overview of statistical sciences as applied to the electrical energy industry. The attendees would learn some descriptive methodologies on how to extract information from data. The emphasis, for this part of the course, being able to describe the behaviour of data by some statistical model(s). Some emphasis is also placed on the relationships between variables (e.g. how does the water consumption relate to the energy produced by a thermal power station).

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Thermo Physics (2 days)

The purpose of this course is to apply key thermodynamic concepts from the basic thermodynamics course. The main focus will be on the water-steam Rankine cycle. A step-by-step approach will be taken throughout this course, starting from a basic open loop to a more efficient closed loop Rankine cycle as used by the power generation industry. Thermal performance of cycle components such as pumps, turbines, steam generators, condensers, contact and non-contact feed water heaters, etc. are evaluated and integrated into the Rankine cycle. The T-S diagram will be introduced onto which the cycle can be potted to give better perspective into abnormal conditions as well as to predict the impact of modifications. The purpose of this course is not an in-depth investigation into the field of thermodynamics, but simply to use its basic principles as a starting point for more detailed investigations.

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Power Plant Chemistry (2 days)

The course teaches a basic understanding on water treatment and basic chemistry. The learner will understand water treatment as the production of demineralised water, control of water and steam cycle chemistry, oxygenated treatment, flow accelerated corrosion, air in-leakage, condenser tube leaks, boiler deposits and chemical cleaning, steam deposits, turbine preservation. In basic chemistry, learners will learn the fundamentals of phase diagrams, states, element classification, chemical mass and electrical balances, chemical reactions and kinetics, homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion, pollutant emission reactions (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx, VOC, PAH, heavy metals), water treatment basic chemistry and corrosion mechanisms.

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Computer Aided Analysis (2 days)

The purpose of the course is to equip engineers with some general tools and techniques to perform computer aided analysis. The use of two general analysis software will be taught, namely Excel and Mathcad. The focus on Excel will be mostly in programming using the built-in Visual Basic environment, while the Mathcad part will provide the student with the necessary basics to become proficient in its use. These skills can be used in any engineering discipline for general calculations and analysis.

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Electrical Systems

The learner will, after completing the course, be able to:

  • explain power station electrical systems in general,
  • understand the basic theory and operation of generators in the power generation industry,
  • recognise the role of protection in electrical systems and the role that generator breakers and switchgear play within protection schemes,
  • describe the application of transformers in power generation,
  • understand the role of excitation systems on generators as well as the different types of excitation systems used in Eskom,
  • list the components that the internal station reticulation/unit reticulation consists of and the function of each component,
  • clarify the critical role of emergency systems in power stations,
  • understand the importance of electrical motors within the power generation process.

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Auto Controls

The training in this course will equip the learner with knowledge and understanding in order to:

  • explain automatic control systems in general (at a high level),
  • expand their knowledge of the organisation by including the importance of understanding automatic controls,
  • identify error likely situations, instability and flawed defences,
  • manage error likely situations, instability and flawed defences,
  • utilise error prevention tools and techniques.

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Common Plant

After completing this course the learner will be able to explain the basic purposes and operating principles of the following explain automatic control systems in general (at a high level),

  • hazardous locations,
  • fire and life safety,
  • bulk materials handling (ash and coal)
  • hydrogen plant,
  • fuel oil plant,
  • compressor plant,
  • auxiliary cooling.

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Condensers and Feedheat

Upon completion of this course, the learner will:

  • have a basic knowledge of condensers and feedheat in the context of Eskom power stations,
  • understand role of feedwater heaters,
  • be able to describe the basic principles of power plant cooling.

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The South African Grid Code (SAGC)

After completion, the learner will have a good understanding of the:

  • definition and legal framework of the SAGC,
  • scope of SAGC,
  • preamble and governance codes,
  • system operating code,
  • tariff code,
  • metering code,
  • fuel oil plant,
  • compressor plant,
  • auxiliary cooling.
  • information exchange code,
  • network code,
  • (thermal and hydro) generation connection conditions,
  • renewable power plants connection conditions,
  • generation scheduling and dispatch rules.

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Power Plant Monitoring

The learner will have both theoretical knowledge and practical exposure after completing this course through:

  • measuring techniques and instrumentation,
  • sampling theory, signal processing and data analysis,
  • accuracy, calibration and error propagation,
  • practical application on test loops and EtaPRO.

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After completion of this course, learners will have a thorough understanding of:

  • boiler mass balances,
  • boiler energy balances,
  • air heater mass and energy balances.

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Upon completion of this applied course, the learner will be able to identify:

  • steam cycles applicable to the steam turbine,
  • basic view of turbine operations,
  • the main components of a steam turbine,
  • steam turbine protection,
  • types of turbine blading,
  • turbine auxiliary systems,
  • steam turbine protection.

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MV and HV Power Transmission

The course will assist the learner in having a better understanding of how to:

  • perform load flow studies,
  • manage reactive power flow and voltage control in power systems,
  • understand the processes of frequency control in power systems,
  • manage stability issues in power systems,
  • design protection schemes in HV and MV systems.

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Project Management

On completion of this course, students will have a good understanding of:

  • all the relevant techniques in project management,
  • applying these techniques through experiential learning during the workshop,
  • managing a project and project role-players effectively,
  • the monitor progress and enduring project success by using the correct enhancement tools,
  • project management definitions and phases,
  • who does what in a project?,
  • the application of project management principles,
  • how to keep energy dynamics at an optimal level,
  • the project managers’ role and responsibilities,
  • what is successful project leadership,
  • how to draw up a responsibility matrix,
  • the process of budgeting for facilities, labour/skills and material,
  • how to schedule tasks (precedence analysis/network and Gantt chart) and resources (human and equipment),
  • how to do role player mapping,
  • how to draw up a sequence of activities and plot it on a Bar chart,
  • how to draw up a risk analysis,
  • how to draw up a critical path,
  • how to implement a project plan,
  • the close out of a project.

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